Not shortly after Roger Maris record was broken, another baseball player, Jason Giambi and various other athletes were either suspected of, or proven to have, taken anabolic steroids. Again, Congress convened a hearing, and just as they did the first time in 1990, they did not determine that steroids were a danger, but rather that the danger was more in protecting professional sports organizations. The updated statute has been updated to proscribe pro-hormones also The definition of an anabolic steroid as defined currently in the United States under (41)(A) is that "anabolic steroid" means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens , progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone (7).
Which is the better protein supplement: whey or casein?
Surprisingly, blending both types of protein together and taking them as a mixture may provide better benefits than taking either one alone. French researchers recently discovered that casein supplies a much steadier stream of amino acids to the body--much like a complex carbohydrate, which breaks down slowly in the body. Whey, on the other hand, is absorbed more quickly and provides a more immediate supply of amino acids to the body (much like a simple carbohydrate). It makes sense then that a combination of whey and casein would supply the body with the maximum dose of amino acids needed for both immediate and long-term muscle growth. (Can't find a blend you like? Buy your favorite whey and casein supplements and mix 'em together.)
Studies have also suggested that BPA interferes with germ cell nest breakdown in animal models. In neonatally exposed lambs, low-dose BPA was reported to increase the incidence of multioocyte follicles ( Rivera et al. 2011 ). Similarly, in gestationally exposed macaques, dietary low-dose BPA exposure increased the number of oocytes present in secondary and antral follicles at birth, and continuous BPA exposure (measured < 1 ng/mL in maternal serum) increased the incidence of unenclosed oocytes ( Hunt et al. 2012 ). Further, in gestationally exposed CD-1 mice, low-dose BPA increased the number of unenclosed oocytes, whereas it decreased the number of primordial follicles in a dose-dependent manner ( Zhang HQ et al. 2012 ). In another study, Veiga-Lopez et al. (2013) reported that prenatal BPA exposure altered the fetal ovarian steroidogenic gene and microRNA expression that mediate gonadal differentiation and folliculogenesis in sheep. Collectively, these studies provide strong evidence that gestational BPA exposure—across multiple exposure routes, doses, and species—impairs proper germ cell nest breakdown, leading to the formation of multioocyte follicles. The presence of multioocyte follicles is of concern because they are considered a pathologic condition that may lead to ovulatory problems ( Iguchi et al. 1990 ).