Role of testosterone in women

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Though you may already be aware of potential side effects from testosterone abuse (note I said abuse and not use), here they are again: lowered HDL-cholesterol levels (good cholesterol), testicular atrophy, reductions in sperm count, prostate enlargement, liver damage (primarily with oral steroids that have been modified with a 17-alkyl substitution), menstrual irregularities, suppression of endogenous hormone levels (like LH and T), development of palpable breast tissue in men (also known as gynecomastia), clitoral enlargement, and acne.

Testosterone plays an important role in mammalian brain development. In neural regions with appropriate receptors testosterone, or its metabolites, influences patterns of cell death and survival, neural connectivity and neurochemical characterization. Consequently, testosterone exposure during critical periods of early development produces permanent behavioural changes. In humans, affected behaviours include childhood play behaviour, sexual orientation, core gender identity and other characteristics that show sex differences (. differ on average between males and females). These influences have been demonstrated primarily in individuals who experienced marked prenatal hormone abnormalities and associated ambiguities of genital development (. congenital adrenal hyperplasia). However, there is also evidence that testosterone works within the normal range to make some individuals within each sex more sex-typical than others. The size of testosterone-related influences, and perhaps even their existence, varies from one sex-typed characteristic to another. For instance: prenatal exposure to high levels of testosterone has a substantial influence on sex-typical play behaviour, including sex-typed toy preferences, whereas influences on core gender identify and sexual orientation are less dramatic. In addition: there appears to be little or no influence of prenatal testosterone on mental rotations ability, although mental rotations ability shows a marked sex difference. These findings have implications for basic understanding of the role of testosterone in normative gender development, as well as for the clinical management of individuals with disorders of sex development (formerly called intersex syndromes).

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

As oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor therapy has become the first-line treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), common approaches in the evaluation of ED have been largely abandoned. Not only is routine hormone analysis no longer widely recommended, but most specialists perform serum testosterone level testing only in the most complex cases of ED. This article explores the rationale for including serum testosterone analysis as part of the initial screening of patients with ED. The use of routine serum testosterone testing is advocated for its efficacy in the diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism and pituitary disorders associated with ED.

Role of testosterone in women

role of testosterone in women

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

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