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The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression".   Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.  The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game.  Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males.     
The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of menstrual cycle, oral contraception, and training status on the exercise-induced changes in circulating DHEA-sulphate and testosterone in young women. Twenty-eight healthy women were assigned to an untrained group (n = 16) or a trained group (n = 12) depending on their training background. The untrained group was composed of nine oral contraceptive users (OC+) and seven eumenorrheic women (OC-). The trained group was composed of OC+ subjects only. All the OC+ subjects were taking the same low-dose oral contraception. Three laboratory sessions were organised in a randomised order: a prolonged exercise test until exhaustion, a short-term exhaustive exercise test, and a control session. Blood specimens were collected before, during and after the exercise tests and at the same time of the day during the control session. Basal circulating testosterone was significantly lower in trained as compared to untrained subjects. In all subjects, the prolonged exhaustive exercise induced a significant increase in circulating DHEA-s and testosterone. The short-term exercise induced a significant increase in circulating DHEA-s in untrained eumenorrheic and in trained OC users only. Menstrual phases in OC- did not influence the responses. It was found that exhaustive physical exercise induced an increase in circulating DHEA-s and testosterone in young women. Oral contraception may limit short-term exercise-induced changes.