However, t -butyl esters with are particularly useful because, under strongly acidic conditions, the t -butyl esters undergo elimination to give the carboxylic acid and isobutylene, simplifying work-up. Cedarwood oil, Chinese Fir, Abies balsamea extracts does Thyme, Thymus zygis, ext. And Thomas) Pepper, black, oil (Piper nigrum.) Hyssop oil (Hyssopus officinalis.) Fennel oil bitter (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) Sandalwood oil (Santalum album.) Pine oil Peppermint oil Balsam oil, Peru (Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch) Rose absolute (Rosa spp.) Lemongrass oil Hops oil (Humulus lupus.). Camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora formosana, ext. Other methods edit Reactions edit Esters react with nucleophiles at the carbonyl steroids carbon. The chemical formulas of organic esters usually take the form RCO2R, where R and R are the hydrocarbon parts of the carboxylic acid and the alcohol, respectively. Phytyl acetate Heptanol, 2,6-dimethyl-,acetate Triethanolamine (tri-)Acetin Benzyl octanoate Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate Ethylhexyl acetate Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate Methyl cinnamate Benzyl isobutyrate muscles Ethyl cinnamate Benzyl butyrate Benzyl isovalerate,7-Dimethyl-1,6-nonadien-3-ol Benzyl cinnamate Phenethyl acetate Oils, jasmine, Jasminum sambac Phenethyl isobutyrate Dibenzyl ether Phenethyl butyrate Phenethyl cinnamate Cinnamyl acetate Cinnamyl propionate. Reduction edit Compared to ketones and aldehydes, esters are relatively where resistant to reduction. Beal "Trimyristen" Organic Syntheses, Coll. Cyclohexanone, effects 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) Decen-1-ol Bentonite Octadecenoic acid, 12-hydroxy-, zinc salt (2:1 R-(Z) Ethyl 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate Hexylcyclopentanone Benzeneacetonitrile, a-butylidene-, (Z) Sodium hydroxide Undecenenitrile, (E) Zinc oxide (zno) Methanone, (2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)phenyl Methanone, acetate,3-Dioxolane,3-Dioxolane, trans Cresol (mixed isomers) Benzaldehyde glyceryl acetal Methoxy-1-propanol-2 methoxy-2-propanol,3-Nonanediol acetate (mixed esters) Tetrahydro-pseudo-ionone Santalyl acetate,6-Dimethyl-2-heptanol Nonyn-1-al dimethylacetal.
As for aldehydes , the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to undergo deprotonation, which in turn leads to a variety of useful reactions. Deprotonation requires relatively strong bases, such as alkoxides . Deprotonation gives a nucleophilic enolate , which can further react, ., the Claisen condensation and its intramolecular equivalent, the Dieckmann condensation . This conversion is exploited in the malonic ester synthesis , wherein the diester of malonic acid reacts with an electrophile (., alkyl halide ), and is subsequently decarboxylated. Another variation is the Fráter–Seebach alkylation .
The intravenous route is not FDA approved and is generally not recommended except when no other alternatives are available. Intravenous administration appears to be associated with a higher risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) than other forms of administration. The manufacturer recommends ECG monitoring for QT prolongation and arrhythmias if IV administration is required. A dose in the range of 1 to 5 mg IV has been suggested, with the dose being repeated at 30 to 60 minute intervals, if needed. A maximum IV dose has not been established. The lowest effective dose should be used in conjunction with conversion to oral therapy as soon as possible.